19 species were definitely identified.

Family Polyporaceae Fr. ex Corda (1839)

Lentinus arcularius (Batsch) Zmitr. (2010)

Saprobic, grows on decaying deciduous wood, often oak. Sometimes these mushrooms grow from buried wood and appear terrestrial (Emberger 2008b). Our samples appeared terrestrial and were found near live oak. This is a common species found in many parts of the world from India to the Americas but to our knowledge this is the first report from this region.  Lentinus arcularius is thought to have medicinally relevant compounds (Petre et al. 2017).

Trametes hirsuta (Wulfen) Pilát (1939)

Grows on stumps and fallen hardwood (Kuo 2010). Our samples were found on fallen hardwood (likely almond) in an olive grove. This species is fairly common, and Puri, et al. (2006) found that it could be utilized as a novel source of aryl tetralin lignans, which are important compounds used for the synthesis of topoisomerase inhibitors. Habitats containing Trametes hirsuta are thus of notable biomedical importance

Fig. 33. Trametes hirsuta

Family Suillaceae Besl & Bresinsky (1997)

Suillus collinitus (Fr.) Kuntze (1898)

Family Boletaceae Chevall. (1828)

Xerocomellus redeuilhii Simonini, Gelardi & Vizzini (2016)              Mycorrhizal, associated with hardwoods, often oaks.

Family Tapinellaceae C. Hahn (1999)

Tapinella panuoides (Batsch) E.-J. Gilbert (1931): Saprotrophic, grows on conifers (Kuo 2015a). Our samples were found at the base of fallen pine. This species is fairly common, and an occasional subject of biomedical research. Schneider et al (2008) have isolated atromentin compounds, and their associated genes from this species. These compounds have been shown to have antibiotic and anti-cancer properties (Zheng et al. 2006, Kim & Lee 2009). Thus ecosystems containing Tapinella panuoides are of notable biomedical importance.

Fig. 34 Tapinella panuoides

Family Psathyrellaceae Vilgalys, Moncalvo & Redhead (2001)

Psathyrella bipellis (Quél.) A.H.Sm. (1946): Saprotrophic; grows in groups on lawns or in decaying plant matter (Kuo 2011). Our samples were found in damp decaying leaves, mostly olive and oak. Psathyrella bipellis has been found throughout Europe and North America (Smith & Hessler 1946).

Coprinopsis friesii (Quél.) P. Karst. (1872)

Coprinellus micaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson (2001) Saprotrophic, grows in clusters on decaying wood. Its substrate is often buried, causing the mushrooms to appear terrestrial (Kuo 2008a). Our samples were found in grass at the base of an almond tree.

Fig. 35. Coprinellus micaceus

Family Pluteaceae Kotl. & Pouzar (1972)

Volvopluteus gloiocephalus (DC.) Vizzini, Contu & Justo (2011)       Saprotrophic, terrestrial, in grassy areas or composting organic matter. Our samples were found in thick grass.

Family Marasmiaceae Roze ex Kühner (1980)

Omphalotus olearius (DC.) Sing. (1948)         Saprotrophic; grows on stumps, buried roots, or on the base of hardwoods, especially oaks and olive (Kuo, 2015b). This sample was found growing at the base of olive.

Fig. 36. Omphalotus olearius

Family Mycenaceae Overeem (1926)

Sarcomyxa serotina (Pers.) P. Karst. (1891)  Our samples were found at the base of live oak.

Family Physalacriaceae Corner (1970)

Cryptomarasmius corbariensis (Roum.) T.S. Jenkinson & Desjardin (2014) Saprotrophic, grows on rotting leaves of olive and other trees (Bozok et al 2017). Our samples were found growing on damp olive leaves.

Family Amanitaceae E.J. Gilbert (1940)

Amanita ovoidea (Bull.) Link (1833)  Ectomycorrhizal; found under deciduous trees, notably oaks, sometimes olive, on lime or alkaline soil. Our samples were found in a recently plowed olive grove.

Family Tricholomataceae R. Heim ex Pouzar (1983)

Lepista sordida (Schumach.) Singer (1951) Our samples were found at the base of olive and oak.

Fig. 37. Lepista sordida

Family Agaricaceae Chevall. (1826)

Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (1797)

Coprinus comatus (O.F.Müll.) Pers. (1797)

Fig. 38 Coprinus comatus

Family Hygrophoraceae Lotsy (1907)

Arrhenia rickenii (Hora) Watling (1989) Our samples were found on moss-covered limestone gravel. Originally described in Europe, the range of this species was first recorded in Turkey by Kaya (2009). This is the first record of this species in Palestine.

Fig. 39. Arrhenia rickenii

Family Pyronemataceae Corda (1842)

Geopora arenosa (Fuckel) S. Ahmad (1978)  Our samples were found closely associated with moss, on limestone soils.

Family Helellevaceae Fr. (1822)

Helvella lacunosa Afzel (1783) Our samples were found near live oak.

Fig. 40. Arrhenia rickenii