The project area, Al-Makhrour Valley, is the last remaining biodiversity-rich area in the Bethlehem district, 2.6 Km2 of natural areas interspersed with agriculture and rich flora and fauna, and an equivalent buffer zone of more than 5 km2. It is also one of 13 IBAs in Palestine rich in cultural heritage, including old Roman tombs, ancient wells,  old Palestinian watchtowers and a part which is considered a WHS by UNESCO (attached map). As the valley is located in Area C, it suffers from diverse pressures: (1) habitat loss and land fragmentation, causing biodiversity loss; (2) challenging livelihood conditions as a result of (among others) the lack of economic motivations, no subsidies for farming practices, and inadequate markets for extra production.